UDC 637.12.05:636.3                                                    http://dx.doi.org/10.15407/animbiol18.04.106

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL composition of goat and sheep milk depending on the altitude of grazing

T.Fotina, N.Zazharska

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Sumy National Agrarian University,
160Kondratyeva str., Sumy 40021, Ukraine

The indicators of quality and safety of sheep and goat milk were compared depending on the altitude of grazing in the valleys of Zakarpattya (251, 309, 341, 376, 394, 524, 580 and 750m above sea level). The milk samples from 80 animals (5 goats and 5 ewes at each height) were studied.

Acidity of sheep milk ranged from 22 to 29 ºT, goat milk — from 13 to 17 ºT. Dry non-fat milk solid of sheep milk was on average 10–11 %, and of the goat milk — 8–8.5 %. The density of sheep milk ranged from 29.3 ºA (very fat milk) to 39.7 ºA, while the density of the goat milk — from 24.4 ºA to 30.5 ºA. The protein content of sheep milk was 3.6–4.2 %, goat milk — 2.9–3.2 %, fat content — 3.3–7.7% and 2.6–5.6 %, respectively. Sheep milk was richer in lactose on 20–30 % compared to the goat milk. It was proved that if the fat of goat and sheep milk was higher, then its density was lower. There was an inverse relationship between parameters of total protein and freezing point in milk of small ruminants. The somatic cells count in the goat milk of all surveyed herds was greater 1.3–4.3 times than in sheep milk. It was noticed that somatic cells count (in goat milk up to 359×103/ml, in sheep milk — up to 194×103/ml) was less than requirements in Europe (<1000 and <500×103/ml, respectively).

The highest fat content in the milk of sheep (7.69 %) and goats (5.61 %) was observed at an altitude of 341 m above sea level (P<0.01). High freezing point and at the same time the lowest levels of protein and density of milk were marked in these animals. At the highest altitude of the research (750 m above sea level) the lowest fat content in the milk of sheep (3.27 %) and goats (2.6 %) was marked along with the highest level of dry non-fat milk solid and protein in the milk of goats. The lowest concentration of somatic cells in milk of small ruminants at this altitude indicates a high sanitary quality of milk.

Keywords: goats, ewes, milk, physical-chemical parameters, somatic cells, altitude of grazing

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