Bìol. Tvarin, 2016, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 117–125

WORLD EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF GENOMIC SELECTIONIN DAIRY CATTLE

S. Ruban1, V. Danshin2, О. Fedota3

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1Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M. V. Zubets NAAS,
1 Pogrebnyak str., Chubynske village, Boryspil district, Kyiv region, 08321, Ukraine

2Institute of Animal Husbandry NAAS,
7 Guards Army str., 3, Kulynychi, Kharkіv district, Kharkiv region, 62404, Ukraine

3V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University,
4 Svobody sq., Kharkiv 61022, Ukraine

The review article is devoted to the world advances in genomic selection of cattle. Advances in animals genome sequencing track the inheritance of chromosomal fragments with low and high density chips to calculate the genetic value of animals. Since the bulls phenotypes are much more accurate than the cows, the reference population consists mainly of genotyping bulls assessed on progeny. At the same time, in some countries cows are included in the reference population after a certain standardization of their phenotypes.

Assessment of effects of a large number of SNP-markers are used to predict animals breeding values. The prognosis can be carried out immediately after the birth of the animal, regardless of availability about animal or its relatives productivity data. In most cases, the final score is the sum of the effects of the combination of SNP-markers and residual polygenic effects with traditional evaluation results.

Comparison of genomic evaluation methods indicates some advantage of Bayesian methods in the presence of a small amount of quantitative trait loci (QTL) with significant effects, but in practice genomic BLUP is mostly used. Genomic score is particularly profitable in dairy farming because the generation interval is twice lower compared to traditional assessment of offspring. Higher reliability of estimates of bulls mothers breeding values compensates reduced reliability of estimates of bulls fathers breeding values. The cost of genotyping is significantly lower than the cost estimates of offspring. When using genomic selection the average annual genetic progress can be doubled, even if the intensity of the selection remains unchanged.

Keywords: GENOMIC EVALUATION, QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI, SNP-MARKERS, REFERENCE POPULATION, SELECTION

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