PHOSPHOLIPID COMPOSITION OF LIVER AND GILLS OF FISH AS INDICATOR  OF SURFACE WATER RIVERS OF TERNOPIL REGION

B. Z. Lyavrin, V. Ya. Byyak, V. O. Khomenchuk, V. Z. Kurant

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Ternopil National Pedagogical University named after Volodymyr Hnatiuk,

M. Krivonosa st., 2, Ternopil, 46027, Ukraine

Growth of human impacts on the aquatic environment exacerbates a problem of survival of organisms under stressful conditions of water environment. Such conditions created by the accumulation of toxic substances. Aquatic organisms has a lot ways of biochemical adaptation with varying degrees of difficulty. That allowing them successfully adapt to the actions of toxicants. One of these ways is the alteration of lipid metabolism. Therefore, important studying phospholipid composition of liver and gills tissues of fish taken from the water bodies with a different character of human impact. Found differences in the content of total lipids in the gills and liver of crucian carp and perch taken from different reservoirs. Phospholipid composition of cells of crucian carp and perch gills has a similar character in the interspecific comparison, which is typical for the non-specific storage of tissue lipids. However the phospholipid composition of cell membranes of crucian carp and perch liver characterized by distinct interspecies differences over the content of individual classes of phospholipids, which is probably due to flow characteristics physiological and biochemical processes in the liver cells of these types of fish. As each phospholipid involved in the implementation of the general functions of cells membranes, maintaining a constant composition provides optimum physical and chemical structure of membranes and their properties. Fluctuations in the structural lipids content play an important role in the adaptation. In addition, a high level of structural lipids provides stability (stabilization, compaction) of membranes to various environmental factors and provides normal operation of the built-in membrane proteins and receptors. These changes can also be seen as adaptive response and can be used as indicative in determining the condition of the habitat.

Keywords: SMALL RIVERS, FISH, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, CARP, PERCH, POLLUTION

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