Amphiphiles as Tools for Studying Hypertonic Cryohemolysis of Mammalian Erythrocytes

N. A. Ershova, N. M. Shpakova, N. V. Orlova, S. S. Ershov

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Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pereyaslavska st., 23, Kharkov, 61015, Ukraine

The paper is devoted to the studying of effect caused by representatives of some amphiphilic compounds on hypertonic cryohemolysis of erythrocytes of various mammalian species.

There was comparatively studied sensitivity of human, equine, bovine and rabbit erythrocytes to the cooling in hypertonic media. It was shown that dependencies of hypertonic cryohemolysis for human and equine erythrocytes are characterized by unmonotonous manifesting in the presence of certain maximum (for human it is 1.2, for horse this is 1.41.6 mol/l of NaCl) with the following reduction of damage degree. Damage degree of bovine and rabbit erythrocytes decreases with saline concentration growth in the medium within all the studied concentration range (up to 2.2 mol/l of NaCl).

The using of amphiphilic compounds enabled to establish their efficiency under hypertonic cryohemolysis of mammalian erythrocytes. It was shown that cationic trifluoperazine, anionic sodium decyl sulfate and nonionic dodecyl-β,D-maltoside decrease the resistance of mammalian erythrocytes to hypertonic hemolysis in 1.2 and 2.1 mol/l of NaCl. However in the latter case efficiency of all the studied amphiphilic compounds decreases manifesting in reduction of antihemolytic activity and the values of effective concentrations of substances. It reveals the invisible damages accumulating in membrane when increasing power of stress factor. Therefore reduction of hypertonic cryohemolysis level of human and equine erythrocytes in 2.1 mol/l of NaCl found with no amphiphilic properties is not real evidence of membrane state improvement. Herewith the revealed increasing of intracellular content of sodium cations of human erythrocytes in high-concentrated salines testifies to disordered barrier properties of erythrocyte membranes.

Keywords: mammalian erythrocytes, hypertonic cryohemolysis, sodium decyl sulfate, dodecyl-β,D-maltoside, trifluoperazine, antihemolytic activity, effective concentrations

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