Bìol. Tvarin, 2019, volume 21, issue 2, pp. 61–65


A. Starke, T. Snedec, K. Theinert, F. Pietsch, S. Theile, A.-S. Leonhardt, A. Kretschmar, F. Ebert, E. Bannert, G. Köller, M. Schären

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

University of Leipzig, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Clinic for Ruminants and Swine,
An den Tierkliniken 11, Leipzig, 04103, Germany

Transition cow diseases are a multifactorial complex. Veterinaries need reliable indicators to identify risk animals, take treatment decisions or monitor the metabolic state of the herd. The identification and development of prognostic markers, accompanied by sound metaphylactic treatment protocols are needed.

For the trial 80 German Holstein dairy cows (≥2nd lactation, clinically healthy and pregnant) were selected from the herd. The study included an intense analysis of each animal from 14 days ante-partum until 49 days post-partum: daily milk yield, monthly milk content analysis, clinical state throughout the trial, ultrasonography of the liver and back-fat tissue measurement, liver biopsies, blood and urine sampling, rumination and locomotion behaviour. To evaluate a metaphylactic treatment protocol with Butaphosphan and Cyanocobalamin two groups received a treatment with Catosal® at either a low or high dosage (5 ml and 10 ml/100 kg body weight, 10 % Butaphosphan and 0,005 % Cyanocobalamin) and two placebo-groups were formed (5 ml and 10 mL NaCl 0,9 %/100 kg body weight).

We identified “high risk” animals based on their metabolite profiles and that these metabolic alterations were already present prepartum. The cows in the spring-calving group exhibited higher clinical scores (e.g. concerning the genital tract, the gastro-intestinal tract and treatment frequency), fat accumulation in the liver and higher serum fatty acid concentrations, indicative for a more pronounced energy deficit in this group. By the analysis of each group separately at the separate time points the effect of the treatment with Butaphosphan and Cyanocobalamin emerged. In the “high-risk” group a long-lasting effect (day 28 postpartum, 3 weeks after treatment) was observed.

Further analysis is needed to identify the metabolites involved in the alterations observed across the transition period, as well as describing “high-risk” animals and treatment effect with Butaphosphan and Cyanocobalamin and bringing the observed metabolic alterations on a production level.


  1. Ametaj B. N., Zebeli Q., Iqbal S. Nutrition, microbiota, and endotoxin-related diseases in dairy cows. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 2010, vol. 39, supl. especial, pp. 433–444. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010001300048
  2. Ashton-Miller J. A., DeLancey J. O. L. On the biomechanics of vaginal birth and common sequelae. Annual review of biomedical engineering, 2009, vol. 11, pp. 163–176. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-061008-124823
  3. Bannink A., Gerrits W. J. J., France J., Dijkstra J. Variation in rumen fermentation and the rumen wall during the transition period in dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2012, vol. 172, issue 1–2, pp. 80–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.12.010
  4. Bergsten C. Causes, risk factors, and prevention of laminitis and related claw lesions. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 2003, vol. 44, suppl. 1, p. S157. https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-44-S1-S157
  5. Bobe G., Young J. W., Beitz D.C. Invited review: pathology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of fatty liver in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 2004, vol. 87, issue 10, pp. 3105–3124. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73446-3
  6. Bøe K. E., Færevik G. Grouping and social preferences in calves, heifers and cows. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2003, vol. 80, issue 3, pp. 175–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00217-4
  7. Bouissou M. F., Boissy A., Neindre le P., Veissier I. The social behaviour of cattle. In: Social behaviour in farm animals. Ed. by L. J. Keeling, H. W. Gonyou. CABI, 2001, pp. 113–145. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851993973.0113
  8. Bradford B., Yuan K., Farney J. K., Mamedova L. K., Carpenter A. J. Invited review: Inflammation during the transition to lactation: New adventures with an old flame. Journal of Dairy Science, 2015, vol. 98, issue 10, pp. 6631–6650. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-9683
  9. Contreras G. A., Sordillo L. M. Lipid mobilization and inflammatory responses during the transition period of dairy cows. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 2011. vol. 34, issue 3, pp. 281–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2011.01.004
  10. Cook N. B., Nordlund K. V. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics. The Veterinary Journal, 2009, vol. 179, issue 3, pp. 360–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.09.016
  11. Dannecker C., Anthuber C. The effects of childbirth on the pelvic-floor. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 2000, vol. 28, issue 3, pp. 175–184. https://doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2000.025
  12. DeGaris P. J., Lean I. J., Milk fever in dairy cows: A review of pathophysiology and control principles. The Veterinary Journal, 2008, vol. 176, issue 1, pp. 58–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.029
  13. Drackley J. K. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: The final frontier? Journal of dairy science, 1999, vol. 82, issue 11, pp. 2259–2273. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75474-3
  14. Drackley J. K., Dann H. M., Douglas N., Janovick Guretzky N. A., Litherland N. B., Underwood J. P., Loor J. J. Physiological and pathological adaptations in dairy cows that may increase susceptibility to periparturient diseases and disorders. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 2005, vol. 4, issue 4, pp. 323–344. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2005.323
  15. Duffield T. Subclinical ketosis in lactating dairy cattle. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 2000, vol. 16, issue 2, pp. 231–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0720(15)30103-1
  16. Esposito G., Irons P. C., Webb E. C., Chapwanya A. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows. Animal Reproduction Science, 2014, vol. 144, issue 3–4, pp. 60–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2013.11.007
  17. Fregonesi J. A., Tucker C. B., Weary D. M. Overstocking reduces lying time in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 2007, vol. 90, issue 7, pp. 3349–3354. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-794
  18. Friggens N. C., Andersen J. B., Larsen T., Aaes O., Dewhurst R. J. Priming the dairy cow for lactation: a review of dry cow feeding strategies. Animal Research, 2004, vol. 53, issue 6, pp. 453–473. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2004037
  19. Goff J. P. Transition cow immune function and interaction with metabolic diseases. Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference, 2008, p. 45–57.
  20. Grant R. J., Albright J. Effect of animal grouping on feeding behavior and intake of dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 2001, vol. 84, pp. E156–E163. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)70210-X
  21. Hagiwara S., Mori K., Okada H., Oikawa S., Nagahata H. Acute Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cattle: diagnostic parameters associated with poor prognosis. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 2014, vol. 76, issue 11, pp. 1431–1436. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.13-0610
  22. Herdt T. H. Ruminant adaptation to negative energy balance: Influences on the etiology of ketosis and fatty liver. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 2000, vol. 16, issue 2, pp. 215–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0720(15)30102-X
  23. Horst R. L., Goff J. P., Reinhardt T. A. Adapting to the transition between gestation and lactation: differences between rat, human and dairy cow. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 2005, vol. 10, issue 2, pp. 141–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10911-005-5397-x
  24. Ingvartsen K. L. Feeding- and management-related diseases in the transition cow: Physiological adaptations around calving and strategies to reduce feeding-related diseases. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2006, vol. 126, issue 3–4, pp. 175–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.08.003
  25. Ingvartsen K. L., Andersen J. B. Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: a review focusing on periparturient animals. Journal of Dairy Science, 2000, vol. 83, issue 7, pp. 1573–1597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75029-6
  26. Kessel S., Stroehl M., Meyer H. H. D., Hiss S., Sauerwein H., Schwarz F. J., Bruckmaier R. M. Individual variability in physiological adaptation to metabolic stress during early lactation in dairy cows kept under equal conditions. Journal of Animal Science, 2008, vol. 86, issue 11, pp. 2903–2912. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1016
  27. Mulligan F. J., Doherty M. L. Production diseases of the transition cow. The Veterinary Journal, 2008, vol. 176, issue 1, pp. 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.018
  28. Roche J., Bell A. W., Overton T. R., Loor J. J. C. Nutritional management of the transition cow in the 21st century–a paradigm shift in thinking. Animal Production Science, 2013, vol. 53, issue 9, pp. 1000–1023. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN12293
  29. Roche J. R., Friggens N. C., Kay J. K., Fisher M. W. Stafford K. J., Berry D. P. Invited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare. Journal of Dairy Science, 2009, vol. 92, issue 12, pp. 5769–5801. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2431
  30. Sordillo L. M., Raphael W. Significance of metabolic stress, lipid mobilization, and inflammation on transition cow disorders. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, 2013, vol. 29, issue 2, pp. 267–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2013.03.002
  31. Stuebe A. M., Rich-Edwards J. W. The reset hypothesis: lactation and maternal metabolism. American Journal of Perinatology, 2009, vol. 26, issue 1, pp. 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1103034

Download full text in PDF




WorldCat Logo