Bìol. Tvarin, 2017, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp. 9–15

http://doi.org/10.15407/animbiol19.01.009

PERSPECTIVES OF STUDYING CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE MASS DEATH OF HONEYBEES

O. V. Arnauta, L. H. Kalachniuk

oarnauta@nubip.edu.ua, kalachnyuk_liliya@nubip.edu.ua

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,
15
Heroiv Oborony str., Kyiv 03041, Ukraine

This review is devoted to the problem of mass death of bees, also known as “colony collapse syndrome”. The available data on the possible causes of this phenomenon has been summarized. Special attention is given to the analysis of factors which, according to the literature, are considered the most probable cause of the mass death of bees, which is observed in many countries over the past ten years. In particular, it is taken into attention of possible impact of stressors, quality of fodder, electromagnetic radiation, spreading infectious and invasive diseases, the effect of pesticides, wide usage of genetically modified plants in agriculture, excessive application of veterinary medicines. To date, scale of the impact of factors (mentioned above) directly on the immune system and, in general, on the livelihoods of honeybees, is studied by scientists and beekeepers around the world.

It is known that immunity of honeybee includes both cellular and humoral reactions which integrate many the interrelated systems. The investigation of antioxidant system of honeybee has a special place in the study of the formation and maintenance at a certain level of the immune system. It is studied such enzymes of antioxidant system as peroxidase, catalase, reductase, the activity of which depends largely on immune response of bees. The role of antioxidant system in utilization of active forms of oxygen (which are capable to damage cellular structures in the case of accumulation) is also significant. Oxidative stress, which can develop in consequence of the aforementioned factors, is considered by scientists as one of the probable mechanisms of influence on the immune system of honeybee. Study of exactly the combined impact of negative factors on the metabolic system of the organism of bees is a priority direction of research in the purpose to clarify causes of their mass death and understand its mechanism.

Keywords: BEES, COLONY COLLAPSE SYNDROME, IMMUNITY, ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM, METABOLIC DISORDERS

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