Bìol. Tvarin, 2019, volume 21, issue 1, pp. 55–64

CORRECTION OF ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE IN SPORT HORSES

L. G. Slivinskа, I. А. Maksymovych

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Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies named after Stepan Gzhytsky,
50 Pekarska str., Lviv 79010, Ukraine

The article presents the results of studies on the correction of electrolyte balance in sports horses during physical activity of medium intensity and shows the positive effect of the use of minerals on rehydration.

After exercise the disbalance of electrolytes develops for sport horse, as content of natrium and potassium goes down in the serum of blood, a tendency is marked to the decline of content of general calcium and inorganic phosphorus. However, physical activity for sport horse did not influence on the exchange of magnesium in blood.

In horses electrolytes play an important role adjusting and balance of liquid, acid-base balance, support of osmolality and muscular activity. The row of factors influences on the exchange of electrolytes for horse, in particular duration and intensity of loading, condition of environment (temperature, humidity of air), feeding, and for working animals, the deficit of ions arises up as a result of their loss with sweat. At exercise sweating for horse is accompanied by dehydration and loss of five basic elements, in particular to the natrium, chloride, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Dehydration is accompanied by the decline of effective volume of circulatory blood and perfusion through internal organs, that is why a consumption of necessary amount of water is important for a capacity and endurance of horse.

It has been found that the horses of the experimental group recovered after treatment capillary refill time and skin turgor test, the color of mucous membranes, increased exercise tolerance, heart rate normalized, and the frequency of arrhythmias decreased. At the same time, in the control group of horses, symptoms of dehydration developed (increased capillary refill time, skin turgor test, redness and cyanosis of mucous membranes, tachycardia, fatigue, increased recovery time after exercise), incidence of arrhythmias increased.

The use of electrolytes to sports horses contributed to an increase in fluid intake and rehydration (a decrease in total protein and hematocrit in the blood). In the horses of the control group, indicators characterizing the degree of dehydration tended to increase.

In the horses of the experimental group, after the treatment, the serum sodium and potassium levels increased, a tendency to an increase in the calcium content was established, while in the control electrolyte imbalance (decrease in the sodium and potassium content in the blood) was aggravated.

Keywords: SPORT HORSES, EXERCISE, DEHYDRATION, TOTAL PROTEIN, HEMATOCRIT, ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE, SODIUM, POTASSIUM

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