Bìol. Tvarin, 2018, volume 20, issue 3, pp. 43–54

SIGNIFICANCE OF MAMMALS SPERM PLASMA PROTEINS FOR MAINTAINING OF SPERMATOZOA VIABILITY AND PRESERVATION OF FERTILIZING ABILITY

S. B. Kornyat

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Institute the Animal Biology NAAS,
38 Vasyl Stus str., Lviv 79034, Ukraine

The article summarizes the literature data on the biochemical mechanisms of the action of the proteins and amino acids in the semen of mammalian males and their role in maintaining the processes of sperm life and fertilizing ability. The main sources of protein and protein compounds of the seminal plasma and their influence in different quantities and qualities signs on the sperms function and their preserving ability in the genital tract of males and females, outside the body, when diluted with synthetic media, short-term storage, their presence in cryopreservation and deconservation mediums of sperm, the presence of fertilization place are considered. The protein content in males is shown to ensure that ejaculates from quality sperm are obtained from them, which will enable them to obtain a high quality and quantitative expression of offspring. The ways of input of substances of protein nature in the epipidymis of the testicles, their content in it and the significance for sperm life are considered. The studies concerning the content of proteins and their components in semen plasma of mammalian males after ejaculation, the dynamics of changes, their effect on the viability and fertilizing ability of sperms and protein compounds of synthetic and natural origin introduced into plasma or the environment which was not there during ejaculation has been described. Also, the use of protein compounds and proteins of various origin in the media used in frozen and defrosted sperm and their positive effect on sperm in this case are considered. The significance of the presence of these substances in the uterine mucus or the environment for fertilization is considered in the ability of sperm to penetrate into the egg and to fertilize it.

Based on the publications reviewed, the author concludes about the importance of using amino acids, peptides and proteins in diluent media, liquid storage, cryopreservation and defrosting medium of semen of male mammals to ensure more complete preservation of the primary purpose of sperm — the ability to fertilize the egg.

Keywords: MAMMALS, PROTEINS, PEPTIDES, AMINO ACIDS, SPERM, SPERMATOZOAS, SPERM PLASM, TESTIS, TESTIS EPIDIDYMIS

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