Bìol. Tvarin, 2018, volume 20, issue 1, pp. 70–96

INDIGENOUS FRESHWATER ICHTHYOFAUNA OF ISRAEL (REVIEW)

Yu. Oziransky1, N. Kolesnyk2, М. Symon2, S. I. Kim3, R. Коnonenko4, S. Shcherbak5, М. Fedorenko6
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1Agency for the Development of International Cooperation under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State of Israel (MASHAV), International Training Center for Agriculture,
Kibbutz Shefaim, 60990, Israel

2Institute of Fisheries NAAS,
135 Obukhivska str., Kyiv, 03164, Ukraine

3Scientific and Research Institute of Fisheries,
Kush-Yehoch str., Gulbahor village, Jangijul district, Tashkent region, 700123, Uzbekistan

4National University of Life and Enviromental sciences of Ukraine,
15 Heroiv Oborony str., 15, Kуiv, 03041, Ukraine

5Institute of Hydrobiology NAS of Ukraine,
12 Heroiv Stalinhradu str., Kуiv, 02000, Ukraine

6Budget Enterprise “Methodological and Technological Center for Aquaculture”,
82A Turhenievska str., Kуiv, 04050, Ukraine

The uniqueness of the fish fauna of Israel is due to a complex of factors — most notably its location at the crossroads of continents, migration and trade routes and developed hydrographic network, which includes various types of water bodies and a variety of climatic zones. It is represented as species peculiar to the African continent, the Mediterranean basin and the Red Sea basin, as well as to the Levant (Syria, Palestine and Lebanon) with Central Asia. At the same time, the freshwater ichthyofauna of Israel over the last 5 decades is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of introduced species (from 14 to 18 species) and the reduction of endemic species. Most representatives of the endemic ichthyofauna, according to the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources), have been given the status of “under threat”. Nowadays, at the state level work on restoration of the strength and the habitats of freshwater fish populations is ongoing, but sharp fluctuations in rainfall and intensive agriculture significantly complicate them. It should be noted that some native species of fish are traditional target species and 40 % of fish consumption is provided by the local fishery and fishing, and some native ornamental species are an essential article of Israel’s exports. This article refers to the main freshwater fish species that were introduced in Israel, but its main purpose is to provide basic information on the native freshwater ichthyofauna. Thus, filed brief description of modern freshwater native ichthyofauna consisting of about 32 species from 8 different families, and characterized by high levels of endemic (near 12 species). The main habitats of representatives of the aforementioned ichthyofauna are such natural reservoirs as the rivers Jordan and Yarkon, the Sea of Galilee (Sea of Tiberias), the hydrological characteristics of which are given in the article.
The work written by the organizer and participants of the training course “Intensive Pond Fish Culture”, which was held in Israel in December 2016, is a comprehensive review of the indigenous freshwater ichthyofauna of Israel. In particular, the article presents a systematic position and a brief description with illustrations of the morphological and biological characteristics of all fish species that are indigenous to freshwater reservoirs of this country (with the exception of species that are considered extinct or are widely used in aquaculture of Ukraine).

Keywords: FISHING, AQUACULTURE, ENDEMIC FISH SPECIES OF ISRAEL, THE JORDAN RIVER, THE YARKON RIVER, THE SEA OF GALILEE

  1. Abedi M., Shiva A. H., Mohammadi H., Malekpour R. Reproductive biology and age determination of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) in central Iran. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 2011, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 317–323.
  2. Akel E. H. Kh. Growth, Mortalities And Yield Per Recruit Of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) (Pisces, Fam. Cichlidae) From Abu Qir Bay — Eastern Alexandria, Egypt. J. Egypt. Acad. Soc. Environ. Develop. (D-Environmental Studies), 2005, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 17–31.
  1. Alwan N, Esmaeili H.-R., Krupp F. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae). PLoS ONE, 2016, vol. 11, no. 6, e0156434. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156434
  2. Avitzur S. The Yarqon: the river and its tributaries. Tel-Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1958, 231 p. (in Hebrew)
  3. Avnimelech Y. Studies on Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) watershed. Wat. Air Soil Pollut., 1980, vol. 14, pp. 451–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00291858
  4. Babiker M. M., Ibrahim H. Studies on the biology of reproduction in the cichlid Tilapia nilotica (L.): Gonadal maduration and fecundity. J. Fish. Biol., 1979, vol. 14, pp. 437–447. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1979.tb03541.x
  1. Bailey R. G. Guide to the fishes of the River Nile in the Republic of the Sudan. Journal of Natural History, 1994, vol. 28, pp. 937–970. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939400770501
  2. Balshine-Earn S. The Costs of Parental Care in Galilee St. Peter’s Fish, Sarotherodon Galilaeus. Animal Behaviour, 1995, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1995.0214
  3. Banarescu P. M., Nalbant T. T. A generical classification of Nemacheilinae with description of two new genera (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) (PDF). Travaux du Museum d’histoire naturelle ‘Grigore Antipa’, 1995, vol. 35, pp. 429–496.
  4. Banarescu P. M., Nalbant T. T., Goren M. The noemacheiline loaches from Israel (Pisces: Cobitidae: Noemacheilinae). Israel Journal of Zoology, 1982, vol. 31, no. 1–2, pp. 1–25.
  1. Banarescu P. M. Zoogeography of Fresh Waters: Distribution and dispersal of freshwater animals in North America and Eurasia. Aula-Verlag, 1990, 572 p.
  2. Bariche M., Freyhof J. Status of Pseudophoxinus libani and P. kervillei, two minnows from the Levant (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 2016, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 203–210.
  3. Barki A., Gilson L. Volpato. Early social environment and the fighting behaviour of young Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces, Cichlidae). Behaviour, 1998, vol. 135, no. 7, pp. 913–929. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853998792640332
  1. Batalla R. J., García C. Geomorphological Processes and Human Impacts in River Basins. IAHS, Jordan River, 2005, 245 p.
  2. Bath H. Blenniidae. In: Hureau & Monod. Clofnam, 1973, vol. 1, pp. 519–527.
  3. Beckman W. C. The freshwater fishes of Syria and their general biology and management. Fisheries Division, Biology Branch, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1962, 297 p.
  4. Ben-Tuvia A. The biology of the cichlid fishes of Lakes Tiberias and Huleh. Bull. Res. Coun. Israel Sect. B. Zool., 1960, vol. 8, pp. 153–188.
  1. Ben-Zvi A., Gvaskenecht L., Azmon B. The hydrology of the Yarqon. In: Pargament D. (ed). The Yarqon. The Yarqon Stream Authority, Ramat-Gan, 1995, pp. 38–44.
  2. Bernman T. Lake Kinneret data record. Jerusalem, Israel Natl. Counc. Res. Develop. Publ., 1973, pp. 12–73.
  3. Bernman T. The Kinneret — Sea of Galilee. Ariel, 1994, no. 98.
  4. Biro P., Talling J. F. Trophic Relationships in Inland Waters. Proceedings of an International Symposium held in Tihany (Hungary), 1–4 September 1987, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, 352 p.
  5. Butzer K. W. Climatic change in arid regions since the Pliocene. In: Stamp L. D., ed. A history of land use in arid regions. Arid Zone Research–XVII. Paris, UNESCO, 1961, pp. 31–56.
  6. Bwanika G. N., Makanga B., Kizito Y., Chapman L. J., Balirwa J. Observations on the biology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. in two Ugandan Crater lakes. African Journal of Ecology, 2004, vol. 42, pp. 93–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2004.00468.x
  7. Bwanika G., Murie D., Chapman L. Comparative Age and Growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Lakes Nabugabo and Wamala, Uganda. Hydrobiologia, 2007, vol. 589, pp. 287–301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-007-0746-y
  8. Byniak E. Influence of day length and temperature on the reproduction of Aphanius mento (Cyprino­dontiformes, Teleostei). Ph. D. Thesis, Hebrew University, 1973, 96 p. (in Hebrew)
  9. Coad B. W. Distribution of Aphanius species in Iran. Journal of American Killifish Association, 2000, vol. 33, 183–191.
  1. Coad B. W. Fishes of Tehran Province and Adjacent Areas. Tehran, Shabpareh Publishing Institute, 2009, pp. 23–29.
  2. Cohen D. Integration of aquaculture and irrigation: Rationale, principles and its practice in Israel. Advanced irrigation conference, AGRITECH, Israel, 1996, pp. 67–75.
  3. Costa-Pierce B. A. Rapid evolution of an established feral tilapia (Oreochromis spp.): the need to incorporate invasion science into regulatory structures. Biological Invasions, 2003, vol. 5, pp. 71–84. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024094606326
  4. Chernitskiy A. Delicious fish of Israel. 2nd ed. Gertsliya, Isradon, 2009, pp. 29–48. (in Russian)
  5. Chervinski J. Environmental physiology of tilapias. ICLARM Conference Proceedings, 1982, vol. 7, pp. 119–128.
  1. Crivelii A. J., Maitland P. S. Endemic Freshwater Fishes of the Northern Mediterranean Basin: Status, Taxonomy and Conservation (special issue). Biological Conservation, 1995, vol. 72, pp. 121–337.
  2. Crivelii A. J. The freshwater fish endemic to the northern Mediterranean region: An action plan for their conservation. Arles, Tour du Valat, 1995, pp. 1–171.
  3. Crutchfield J. U., Schiller Jr. D. H., Herlong D. D., Mallin M. A. Establishment and impact of redbelly tilapia in a vegetated cooling reservoir. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 1992, vol. 30, pp. 28–35.
  4. Dadzie S. Laboratory experiment on the fecundity and frequency of spawning in Tilapia aurea. Bamidgeh, 1970, vol. 22, pp. 14–18.
  5. D’Amato M. E., Esterhuyse M. M., van der Waal B. C. W., Brink D., Volckaert F. A. M. Hybridization and phylogeography of the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus in southern Africa evidenced by mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA genotyping. Conservation Genetics, 2007, vol. 8, pp. 475–488. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-006-9186-x
  6. Davidoff E. B. Population dynamics of the cyprinid Mirogrex terraesanctae (Steinitz, 1952) in Lake Kinneret, Israel. Bamidgeh, 1982, vol. 34, pp. 130–139.
  7. Davidoff E. B. Verification of the scale method for ageing the cyprinid, Mirogrex terraesanctae (Steinitz, 1952) in Lake Kinneret (Israel). Bamidge, 1986, vol. 38, pp. 108–125.
  8. Drenner R. W., Vinyard G. L., Gophen M., McComas S. R. Feeding behaviour of the cichlid, Sarotherodon galileum: selective predation on Lake Kinneret zooplankton. Hydrobiologia, 1982, vol. 87, pp. 17–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00016658
  9. Dunz A. R., Schliewen U. K. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as “Tilapia”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2013, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 64–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.03.015
  10. Durna S., Bardakci F., Degerli N. Genetic diversity of Garra rufa Heckel, 1843 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Anatolia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 2009, vol. 20, pp. 1–10.
  11. Ekmekci F. G., Banarescu P. M. A revision of the generic position of Barynotus (Systomus) verhoeffi, and the validity of the genera Carasobarbus, Kosswigobarbus and Mesopotamichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Folia Zoologica: international journal of vertebrate zoology, 1998, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 87–96.
  12. Elron E. Biological and ecological aspects of Acanthobrama telavivensis, an endangered species. M.Sc. thesis, Tel Aviv University (in Hebrew, English abstr.), 2000.
  13. Elron E., Gasith A., Goren M. Reproductive strategy of a small endemic cyprinid, the Yarqon bleak (Acanthobrama telavivensis), in a mediterranean-type stream. Environmental Biology of Fishes, October 2006, vol. 77, p. 141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-006-9066-8
  14. Elron E., Goren M., Gasith A. Ammonia toxicity to juvenile Acanthobrama telavivensis (Cyprinidae), a critically endangered endemic fish in the coastal plain of Israel. Isr. J. Zool., 2004, vol. 50, pp. 321–331. https://doi.org/10.1560/LRQ7-0C2F-YFG4-PB3K
  15. El-Sayed A. Tilapia Culture. CABI, 2006, 277 p. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851990149.0000
  16. El-Shazly A. Biological Studies On Four Cichlid Fishes (Tilapia nilotica, Tilapia galilae, Tilapia zillii, Tilapia aurea). Thesis M.Sc. Fac. Sci. Zagazig Univ., Egypt. 1993, 238 p.
  17. Erk’akan F. Two New Oxynoemacheilus (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) Species from Western Turkey. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 2012, vol. 7(2), pp. 97–101. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjbsci.2012.97.101
  18. Eschmeyer W. Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences, 2015.
  19. Eschmeyer W. N., Fricke R., van der Laan R. Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. 2017. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/Ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp.
  20. Esmaeili H. R., Teimori A., Gholami Z., Reichenbacher B. Two new species of the tooth-carp Aphanius (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) and the evolutionary history of the Iranian inland and inland-related Aphanius species. Zootaxa, 2014, vol. 3786 (3), pp. 246–268. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3786.3.2
  21. Fabre N., Garcha-Galea E., Vinyoles D. Parents’ presence affects embryos’ development in Salaria fluviatilis (Asso, 1801), a fish with parental care. Journal of Animal Biology, 2014, vol. 64, is. 3, pp. 295–309.
  22. Fawole O. O., Arawomo G. A. Fecundity of Sarotherodon galilaeus in the Opa reservoir Ile Ife. Nig. J. Sci. Res., 1999, vol. 4 (1), pp. 107–111.
  23. Fishelson L., Goren M., van Vuren J., Manelis R. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Barbus spp., Capoeta damascina and their hybrids (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) in Israel. Hydrobiologia, 1996, vol. 317 (1), pp. 79–88. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00013728
  24. Freyhof J. Acanthobrama lissneri. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2014, Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  25. Freyhof J. Acanthobrama lissneri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014, e.T60802A19008348. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T60802A19008348.en
  26. Freyhof J., Erk’akan F., Özeren C., Perdices A. An overview of the western Palaearctic loach genus Oxynoemacheilus (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat., 2011, vol. 229 (4), pp. 301–312.
  27. Fricke R., Bilecenoglu M., Sari H. M. Annotated checklist of fish and lamprey species (Gnathostoma and Petromyzontomorphi) of Turkey, including a Red List of threatened and declining species. Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. Sea A., 2007, vol. 706, pp. 1–172.
  28. Froese R., Pauly D. “Acanthobrama lissneri” in Fish Base. 2014.
  29. Gafny S., Gasith A., Goren M. Effect of water level fluctuation on shore spawning of Mirogrex terraesanctae (Steinitz) (Cyprinidae) in Lake Kinneret, Israel. J. Fish Biol., 1992, vol. 41, pp. 863–871. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1992.tb02715.x
  30. Gafny S., Goren M., Gasith A. Habitat condition and fish assemblage structure in a coastal mediterranean stream (Yarqon, Israel) receiving domestic effluent. Hydrobiologia, 2000, vol. 422/423, pp. 319–330. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017040017238
  31. Gasith A., Bing M., Raz Y., Goren M. Fish community parameters as indicators of habitat conditions: the case of the Yarqon a lowland polluted stream in a semi arid region (Israel). Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol., 1998, vol. 26, pp. 1023–1026. https://doi.org/10.1080/03680770.1995.11900875
  32. Geifman Y., Shaw M., Dexter H. Lake Kinneret Watershed: investigation of Jordan River loadings and their sources. Mekorot Water Co., Lake Kinneret Watershed Unit, Upper Nazareth, Israel, 1987, 259 p.
  33. Ghalenoei M., Pazooki J., Abdoli A., Hassanzadeh Kiabi B., Golzarian K. Morphometric and meristic study of Garra rufa populations in Tigris and Persian Gulf basins. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal, 2010, vol. 19(3), pp. 107–118.
  1. Ghanavi H. R., Gonzalez E. G., Doadrio I. Phylogenetic relationships of freshwater fishes of the genus Capoeta (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) in Iran. Ecology and Evolution, 2016, vol. 6 (22), pp. 8205–8222. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2411
  2. Golani D., Mires D. Introduction of fishes into the fresh water systems of Israel. Israeli J. Aquac., Bamidgeh, 2000, vol. 25, pp. 47–60.
  3. Gophen M. Fisheries management, water quality and economic impacts: a case history of Lake Kinneret. In: Proc. Great Lakes Conference, Mackinak Island MI, 1986, vol. 2, pp. 5–24.
  4. Gophen M., Landau R. Trophic interactions between zooplankton and sardine Mirogrex terraesanctae populations in Lake Kinneret, Israel. 1977, vol. 29, pp. 166–174.
  5. Gophen M., Scharf A. Food and feeding habits of Mirogrex fingerlings in Lake Kinneret (Israel). Hydrobiologia, 1981, vol. 78, pp. 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00011933
  6. Gophen M. The management of Lake Kinneret and its drainage basin. In: Scientific basis for water resources management. Proc. Jerusalem Symp., Sept. 1985, IAHS Publ., no. 153, pp. 127–138.
  7. Goren M. Acanthobrama telavivensis. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2014, Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  8. Goren M., Fishelson L., Trewavas E. The cyprinid fishes of AcanthobramaHeckel and related genera. Bull. Br. Natl. Hist. Mus. (Zoology), 1973, vol. 24, pp. 291–315.
  9. Goren M. Freshwater fishes of Israel: biology and taxonomy. Tel-Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1983, p. 102. (in Hebrew)
  10. Goren M., Galil B. S. A review of changes in the fish assemblages of Levantine inland and marine ecosystems following the introduction of non-native fishes. J. Appl. Ichthyol., 2005, vol. 21, pp. 364–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2005.00674.x
  11. Goren M., Ortal R. Biogeography, diversity and conservation of the inland water fish communities in Israel. Biol Conserv., 1999, vol. 89, pp. 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00127-X
  12. Goren M. Re-introduction of the “Extinct in the Wild” Yarqon bleak — Acanthobrama telavivensis (Cyprinidae). In: Soorae P. P. (ed.). Global re-introduction perspectives: Re-introduction case studies from around the globe. 2011, pp. 45–48. IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group.
  13. Goren M., Rychwalski E. M. Hybrids of Aphanius dispar and Aphanius mento (Cyprinodontidae: Pisces). Zoological Journal of the linnean society, 1978, vol. 63, in. 3, pp. 259–264.
  1. Goren M. Saving critically endangered fish species — utopia or practical idea? The story of the Yarqon bleak Acanthobrama telavivensis (Cyprinidae) as a test case. Aqua, International Journal of Ichtyology, 2009, vol. 15(1), pp. 1–12.
  2. Goren M. The Fall and Rise of the Yarqon Bleak. WAZA (World Association of Zoos and Aquaria), 2012, vol. 13, pp. 36–38.
  3. Goren M. The freshwater fishes of Israel. Isr. J. Zool., 1974, vol. 23, pp. 67–118.
  4. Goren M. Threatened fishes of Israel. In: Dolev A., Perevolotsky A. (eds.). Red data book for the vertebrates of Israel. Tel-Aviv, Nature and Parks Authority and Society for Preservation of Nature, 2004, pp. 155–158.
  5. Gorshkova G., Gorshkov S., Golani D. Karyotypes of Barbus canis and Capeota damascina (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from the Middle East. Ital. J. Zool., 2002, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 191–194. https://doi.org/10.1080/11250000209356459
  6. Grassberger M., Hoch W. Ichthyotherapy as alternative treatment for patients with psoriasis: a pilot study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med., 2006, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 483–488. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nel033
  7. Güçlü S. S., Küçük F. Population Age, Sex Structure, Growth and Diet of Aphanius mento Heckel in: Russegger, 1843 (Cyprinodontidae: Teleostei), at Kırkgöz Spring, Antalya-Türkiye. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2008, vol. 8, pp. 269–274.
  8. Gunther A. Report on a collection of reptiles and fishes from Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1864.
  9. Haas R. Notes on the ecology of Aphanius dispar (Pisces, Cyprinodontidae) in the Sultanate of Oman. Freshw. Biol., 1982, vol. 12, pp. 89−95. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.1982.tb00605.x
  10. Habel M. L. Overwintering of the cichlid, Tilapia aurea, produces fourteen tons of harvestable size fish in a south Alabama bass-bluegill public fishing lake. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 1975, vol. 37, pp. 31–32. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1975)37[31:OOTCTA]2.0.CO;2
  1. Hales L. S. Occurrence of an introduced African cichlid, the blue tilapia, Tilapia aurea (Perciformes: Cichlidae), in a Skidaway River tidal creek. Department of Zoology and Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, and Marine Extension Service Aquarium, Georgia Sea Grant College Program, Savanna, GA. Unpublished mimeograph, 1989, 12 p.
  2. Hambright K. D., Shapiro J. The 1993 collapse of the Kinneret bleak fishery. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 1997, vol. 4, pp. 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2400.1997.00053.x
  3. Hamidan N., Britton R. Age and growth rates of the critically endangered fish Garra ghorensis can inform their conservation management. Journal Aquatic conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 2015, vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2449
  4. Hamidan N. Diet and trophic niche of the endangered fish Garra ghorensis in three Jordanian populations. 2016, vol. 25, is. 3, pp. 455–464.
  5. Hamidan N. A., Geiger M. F., Freyhof J. Garra jordanica, a new species from the Dead Sea basin with remarks on the relationship of G. ghorensis, G. tibanica and G. rufa (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ichthyolology and Exploration of Freshwaters, 2014, vol. 25, pp. 223–236.
  6. Hamidan N., Mir S. The status of Garra ghorensis in Jordan: distribution, ecology and threats. Journal Zoology in the Middle East, 2003, vol. 30, is. 1, pp. 28–47.
  7. Hamidan N. The freshwater fish fauna of Jordan. Denisia, 2004, vol. 14, pp. 385–394.
  1. Hasankhani M., Keivani Y., Daliri M., Pouladi M., Soofiani N. Length-weight and length-length relationships of four species: Barbus lacerta (Heckel, 1843), Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner, 1897), Squalius lepidus (Heckel, 1843) and Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) from the Sirwan River (western Iran). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 2014, vol. 30, issue 1, pp. 206–207. https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.12319
  2. Hauser W. J. An unusually fast growth rate for Tilapia zillii. California Department of Fish and Game, 1975, vol. 61, issue 1, pp. 54–56.
  1. Hrbek T., Meyer A. Closing of the Tethys Sea and the phylogeny of Eurasian killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology eseb., 2003, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 17–36.
  2. Jensen K. W. Determination of age and growth of Tilapia nilotica L., T. galilaea Art., T. zillii Gerv. and Lates niloticus C. et V. by means of their scales. K. norske Vidensk. Selsk. Forh., 1957, vol. 30, pp. 150–157.
  3. Keenleyside M. H. A. “Parental Care”. Cichlid Fishes: behaviour, ecology and evolution. London, Chapman and Hall, 1991, pp. 191–208.
  4. Keivany Y., Nezamoleslami A., Dorafshan S. Morphological diversity of Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) populations in Iran Iranian. Journal of Ichtyology, 2015, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 148–154.
  1. Khallaf E. A., Alne-na-ei A. A. Feeding ecology of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) & Tilapia zillii (Gervais) in a Nile Canal. Hydrobiologia, 1987, vol. 146, pp. 57–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00007577
  2. Khater A. R. Intensive groundwater use in the Middle East and North Africa In: R. Llamas, E. Custodio, eds. Intensive use of groundwater challenges and opportunities. Abingdon, UK, Balkema. 2003, 478 p.
  3. Kornfield I. L., Nevo E. Likely pre-Suez occurrence of a Red Sea fish Aphanius dispar in the Mediterranean. Nature, 1976, vol. 264, pp. 289–291. https://doi.org/10.1038/264289a0
  4. Kottelat M. Conspectus cobitidum*: an inventory of the loaches of the world (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitoidei). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 2012, suppl. 26, pp. 1–199.
  1. Kreiger B. The Dead Sea and the Jordan River. Indiana University Press, 2016, 304 p.
  2. Krupp F. Barbus continii Vinciguerra 1926, a possible natural hybrid of Barbus canis and Barbus longiceps (Pisces: Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica, 1985, vol. 66 (1/3), pp. 9–15.
  1. Krupp F., Schneider W. The fishes of the Jordan River drainage basin and Azraq Oasis. Fauna of Saudi Arabia, 1989, vol. 10, pp. 347–416.
  2. Küçük F., Güçlü S. S. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Asi River Drainage (Turkey). ZooKeys, 2014, vol. 411, pp. 57–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.411.6833
  3. Küçük F., Gülle İ., Güçlü S. S, Çiftçi Y., Erdoğan Ö. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia. ZooKeys, 2013, vol. 320, pp. 29–41. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.320.4447
  1. Lambert D. J. Freshwater Aquarium Fish. Edison, New Jersey, USA, Chartwell Books, 1997:
  2. Landau R. Dynamics of fish populations in Lake Kinneret. In: M. Gophen (ed.) Annual Reports, Kinneret Limnol. Lab., Tiberias, Israel, 1985, no. 13, p.12, and no. 14, p. 19. (in Hebrew)
  3. Landau R., Gophen M., Walline P. Larval Mirogrex terraesanctae (Cyprinidae) of Lake Kinneret (Israel): growth rate, plankton selectivities, consumption rates and interaction with rotifers. Hydrobiologia, 1988, vol. 169, pp. 91–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00007937
  4. Landau R. Growth and population studies on Tilapia galilaea in Lake Kinneret. Freshwat. Biol., 1979, vol. 9, pp. 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.1979.tb01483.x
  5. Landau R. Mirogrex terraesanctae (Cyprinidae) of Lake Kinneret: biomass changes in relation to inflow; growth rate in relation to fish/zooplankton interaction. Hydrobiologia, 1991, vol. 218, is. 1, pp. 1–14.
  6. Latif A. A. Saady B. E. Reproduction in the Nile Bolti, Tilapia nilotica. Bull. Inst. Ocean. Fish., 1973, vol. 3, pp. 120–142.
  7. Leonardos I., Sinis A. Population Age and Sex Structure of Aphanius fasciatus (Nardo, 1827) (Pisces: Cyprinodontiformes) in the Mesolongi and Etolikon Lagoons (West Greece). Fisheries Research, 1999, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 227–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(98)00231-8
  8. Leonardos I., Sinis A. Reproductive Strategy of Aphanius fasciatus Nardo, 1827 (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae) in Mesolongi and Etolikon Lagoon (W. Greek). Fisheries Research, 1998, vol. 35, pp. 171–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(98)00082-4
  9. Leveque C. Classification of diversity. Biodiversity Dynamics and Conservation: The Freshwater Fish of Tropical Africa. Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 87–89.
  1. Levin B. A., Freyhof J., Lajbner Z., Perea S., Abdoli A., Gaffaroğlu M., Özuluğ M., Rubenyan H. R., Salnikov V. B., Doadrio I. Phylogenetic relationships of the algae scraping cyprinid genus Capoeta (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2011, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 542–549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.09.004
  2. Levy N. The relative degree of proximity between species of the genera Acanthobrama and Mirogrex (Family: Cyprinidae) in the inland freshwater in Israel. MSc. Thesis. Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 2004, p. 91.
  3. Li J., Wang X., He S. Phylogenetic studies of Chinese Labeonine fishes (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Progress in Natural Science, 2005, vol. 3, pp. 213–219.
  1. Lipchin C., Sandler D., Cushman E. The Jordan River and Dead Sea Basin: Cooperation Amid Conflict. Springer Science & Business Media, 2009, 316 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2989-8
  2. Lotan R., Ben-Tuvia A. Distribution and reproduction of Killifish Aphanius dispar and A. Fasciatus and their hybrids in the bardawil lagoon on the mediterranean coast of Sinai, Egypt. Israel Journal of Zoology, 1996, vol. 42, is. 3, pp. 48–50.
  3. Lotan R. The killifish Aphanius dispar. Isr. Land Nature, 1982, vol. 8, pp. 28–30.
  1. Lowe-McConnel R. H. The biology and culture of Tilapias. Conf. Proc.7, Inter. Cent. For Living Aquatic Resor. Manag. Manila, Phillipines, 1982, 432 p.
  2. Machordom A., Doadrio I. Evolutionary history and speciation modes in the cyprinid genus Barbus. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B — Biological Sciences, 2001, vol. 268, no. 1473, pp. 1297–1306. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1654
  3. McDonald E. M. Interactions between a phytoplanktivorous fish, Oreochromis aureus, and two unialgal forage populations. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 1987, vol. 18, pp. 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00000362
  4. Mir S. Taxonomical studies and the geographical distribution of freshwater fishes of Jordan. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 1990, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 157–175.
  5. Naama A. K., Muhsen K. A. Feeding periodicites of the mugilid Liza abu (Heckel) and Cyprinid Carasobarbus luteus (Heckel) from Al-Hammar Marsh, Southern Iraq. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 1986, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 347–350.
  1. Nagl S., Tichy H., Mayer W. E., Samonte I. E., McAndrew B. J., Klein J. Classification and Phylogenetic Relationships of African Tilapiine Fishes Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2001, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 361–374. https://doi.org/10.1006/mpev.2001.0979
  2. Nalbant T. T., Bianco P. G. The loaches of Iran and adjacent regions with description of six new species (Cobitoidea). Ital. J. Zool., 1998, vol. 65, pp. 109–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/11250009809386803
  3. Nasir A. S. Important species of fish used for larval control in the Anti Malaria Program in Somalia, with special reference to Tilapia zilli and Nothobranchius palinquisti. W.H.O. EM/ST. SMR. FSH. MSQ. CTR/7.3 Somalia, 1979, 9 p.
  1. Nissenbaum A. Studies in the geochemistry of the Jordan River-Dead Sea system UCLA-Geochemistry. 1969, 576 p.
  2. Ostrovsky I., Walline P. Growth and production of a dominant pelagic fish, Acanthobrama terraesanctae, in subtropical Lake Kinneret, (Israel). J. Fish Biol., 1999, vol. 54, pp. 18–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1999.tb00609.x
  3. Ostrovsky I., Walline P. Multiannual changes in the pelagic fish Acanthobrama terraesanctae in Lake Kinneret (Israel) in relation to food sources. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 2001, vol. 27, pp. 2090–2094. https://doi.org/10.1080/03680770.1998.11901606
  4. Oziranskiy Ju., Kolesnik N. L., Shherbak S. D., Kononenko R. V., Fedorenko M. O., Mosnickiy V. A., Nekrasov S. A. The current state of the fisheries sector in Israel (Overview). Fishery science of Ukraine, 2017, no. 1, pp. 6–28. (in Russian)
  5. Patimar R., Chalanchi M. G., Chamanara V., Naderi L. Some life history aspects of Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) in the Kangir River, western Iran. Zoo­logy in the Middle East, 2010, vol. 51, pp. 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2010.10638441
  6. Payne A. I., Collinson R. I. A comparison of the biological characteristics of Sarotherodon niloticus (L.) with those of S. aureus (Steindachner) and other tilapia of the delta and lower Nile. Aquaculture, 1983, vol. 30, pp. 335–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(83)90174-6
  7. Philippart J. C., Ruwet J. C. Ecology and distribution of tilapias. In: R. S. V. Pullin, R. H. Lowe-McConnell, eds. The biology and culture of tilapias. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 7, 1982, pp. 15–60
  1. Por F. D. Mare Nostrum: Neogene and Anthropic Natural History of the Mediterranean Basin, with Emphasis on the Levant, C. Dimentman Coronet Books Incorporated, 2006, 349 p.
  2. Por F. D. The Legacy of Tethys: an Aquatic Biogeography of the Levant Dordrecht. Netherlands, Springer, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-0937-3
  3. Prokofiev A. M. Morphological classification of loaches (Nemacheilinae). Journal of Ichthyology, 2010, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 827–913. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0032945210100012
  1. Ralph H. L., Meriwether M. Jordan River Assessment. Lansing, MI, Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources, Fisheries Division, 2004.
  2. Rana Kausik J. Parental influences on egg quality, fry production and fry performance in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) and O. mossambicus (Peters). 1986.
  3. Reich K. Lake Kinneret fishing in its development. Bamidgeh, 1978, vol. 30, pp. 37–64.
  4. Reichenbacher B., Alimohammadian H., Sabouri J., Haghfarshi E., Faridi M., Abbasi S., Matzke-Karasz R., Fellin M. G., Carnevale G., Schiller W., Vasilyan D., Scharrer S. Late Miocene stratigraphy, palaeoecology and palaeogeography of the Tabriz Basin (NW Iran, Eastern Paratethys). Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology, 2011, vol. 311, pp. 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.07.009
  1. Rizk E. A. The Jordan Waters. London, Arab Information Centre, 1964, 24 p.
  2. Sarid Z., Golani D. Israel fisheries in figures. Ministry of Agriculture, Dept of Fisheries. 1962–1985.
  3. Schneider W., Reichert R. K. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Fauna and Zoogeography of the Middle East Friedhelm Krupp. 1987, 338 p.
  4. Schwanck E., Rona K. Male-female parental roles in Sarotherodon galilaeus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Ethology, 1991, vol. 89, pp. 229–243. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1991.tb00306.x
  5. Serruya C. Lake Kinneret. Monographiae Biologicae 32. Junk, The Hague, 1978, 501 p.
  6. Siddiqui A. Q. Reproductive biology of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 1979, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 257–262. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00005482
  1. Skinner W. F. Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner; Cichlidae), an exotic fish species, accidentally introduced to the lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science, 1984, vol. 58, pp. 99–100.
  2. Smith K. G., Barrios V., Darwall W. R. T., Numa C. The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in the eastern Mediterranean IUCN. 2014, 129 p. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2014.01.en
  3. Snoeks J., Teugels G. G. Tristramella. In: J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G. G. Teugels, D. F. E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris, 1991, vol. 4, pp. 519–520.
  4. Sodsuk P., McAndrew B. J. Molecular systematics of three tilapiine genera: Tilapia, Sarotherodon and Oreochromis using allozyme data. J. Fish Biol., 1991, vol. 39, suppl. A, pp. 301–308.
  5. Sparks J. S., Smith W. L. Phylogeny and biogeography of cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae). Cladistics, 2004, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 501–517. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2004.00038.x
  6. Spataru P. Food and feeding habits of Tilapia zillii (Gervais) (Cichlidae) in Lake Kinneret (Israel). Aquaculture, 1978, vol. 14, pp. 327–338. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(78)90015-7
  7. Spataru P., Gophen M. Food composition and feeding habits of Astatotilapia flaviijosephi (Lortet) in Lake Kinneret (Israel). J. Fish Biol., 1985, vol. 26, pp. 503–507. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1985.tb04290.x
  8. Spataru P., Gophen M. Food composition of the barbel Tor canis (Cyprinidae) and its role in the Lake Kinneret ecosystem. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 1985, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 295–301. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00002634
  9. Spataru P., Zorn M. Food and feeding habits of Tilapia aurea (Steindachner) (Cichlidae) in Lake Kinneret (Israel). Aquaculture, 1978, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(78)90129-1
  1. Steinitz H. Acanthobrama terraesanctae, sp.n., from Lake Tiberias, Israel. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 1952, Series 12, vol. 5, no. 51, pp. 293–298.
  2. Steinitz H. Dr. Lissner’s study of the biology of Acanthobrama terraesanctae in Lake Tiberias. Bull. Sea Fish. Res. Stn., Haifa, 1959, vol. 24, pp. 43–64.
  3. Stiassny M. L. J., Getahun A. An overview of labeonin relationships and the phylogenetic placement of the Afro-Asian genus Garra Hamilton, 1922 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), with the description of five new species of Garra from Ethiopia, and a key to all African species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, vol. 150, pp. 41–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00281.x
  4. Stoumboudi M. Th., Abraham M. The spermatogenetic process in Barbus longiceps, Capoeta damascina and their natural sterile hybrid (Teleostei, Cyprinidae). 1996, vol. 49, in. 3, pp. 458–468.
  5. Su R. F. Systematic evolution and zoogeo­graphy of Labeoninae. PhD Dissertation. Kunming, Kunming Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2001.
  6. Suresh A. V., Lin C. K. Tilapia culture in saline waters: a review. Aquaculture, 1992, vol. 106, pp. 201–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(92)90253-H
  1. Svislotski P. Spawning cycles of Acanthobrama terraesanctae from Lake Tiberias. Fisherman’s Bull Haifa, 1960, vol. 3, pp. 14–16.
  2. Tacon P. Relationships between the expression of maternal behaviour and ovarian development in the mouthbrooding cichlid fish Oreochromis Niloticus. Aquaculture, 1996, vol. 146, no. 3–4, pp. 261–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(96)01389-0
  3. Teimori A., Schulz-Mirbach T., Esmaeili H. R., Reichenbacher B. Geographical differentiation of Aphanius dispar (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) from Southern Iran. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 2012, vol. 50, pp. 289–304. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0469.2012.00667.x
  1. Toguyeni A., Fauconneau B., Boujard T., Fostier A., Kuhn E., Mol K., Baroiller J. Feeding behaviour and food utilisation in tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus: Effect of sex ratio and relationship with the endocrine status. Physiology and Behavior, 1997, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 273–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9384(97)00114-5
  2. Trewavas E. An example of “mimicry” in fishes. Nature, 1947, vol. 160, no. 4056, 120 p.
  3. Trewavas E. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. London, British Mus. Nat. Hist., 1983, 583 p. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.123198
  4. Tsigenopoulos C. S., Kasapidis P, Berrebi P. Phylogenetic relationships of hexaploid large-sized barbs (genus Labeobarbus, Cyprinidae) based on mtDNA data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2010, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 851–856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.006
  1. Turan C. Molecular systematics of the Capoeta (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) species complex inferred from mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequence data species. Acta Zool., 2008, pp. 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3409/azc.51a_1-2.1-14
  2. Undar L., Akpinar M. A., Yanikoglu A. “Doctor Fish” and psoriasis. Lancet, 1990, vol. 335, pp. 470–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(90)90699-6
  3. Valdesalici S., Langeneck J., Barbieri M., Castelli A., Maltagliati F. Distribution of natural populations of the killifish Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in Italy: past and current status, and future trends. Italian Journal of Zoology, 2015, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 212–223.
  1. Villwock W. Further contributions on natural hybrids between two valid species of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell) and Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae) from the Bardawil-Lagoon, North Sinai, and al-Qanatir, west of the Suez Canal, Egypt. In: Proc. Symp. Fauna Zoogeogr. Middle East. Ed. by Krupp F., Schneider W., Kinzelbach R. Beih, TAVO A 28, 1987.
  2. Waldocks E. Z. Jordan River to run dry by next year. Jerusalem Post, 2010, is. 07, 51 p.
  3. Webster C. D., Lim. Chhorn Tilapia: Biology, Culture, and Nutrition. CRC Press, 2006, 704 p.
  1. Welcomme R. L. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO fisheries technical paper 294, Rome, 1988, 318 p.
  2. Wildekamp R. H. A world of killies. Atlas of the oviparous cyprinodontiform fishes of the world. the genera adamas, adinia, aphanius, aphyoplatys and aphyosemion. Indiana, american killifish association, 1993, 311 p.
  1. Wittmer W., Büttiker W. Fauna of Arabia Ciba-Geigy. 1983, 663 p.
  2. Wohlfarth G. W., Hulata G. Applied genetics of tilapias. ICLARM Studies and Reviews 6, 2nd ed., 1983.
  1. Wolf Aaron T. Hydropolitics along the Jordan river. United Nations University Press, 1995.
  2. Workagegn K. B., Ababboa E. D., Yimer G. T., Amare T.A. Growth performance of the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) Fed different types of diets formulated from varieties of feed ingredients. J. Aquac. Res. Development, 2014, vol. 5, p. 235. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-9546.1000235
  3. Yang L., Mayden R. L. Phylogenetic relationships, subdivision, and biogeography of the Cyprinid tribe Labeonini (sensu Rainboth, 1991) (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with comments on the implications of lips and associated structures in the Labeonin classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 2010, vol. 54, pp. 254–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.09.027
  4. Yamaguchi Y., Hirayama N., Koike A., Adamo H. A. Age determination of growth of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in High Dam Lake, Egypt. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 2005, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 437–443. https://doi.org/10.2331/suisan.56.437
  5. Yaron Z., Cocos M., Salzer H. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on ovarian recrudescence in the cyprinid fish Mirogrex terraesanctae. Journal of fish biology, 1980, vol. 16, in. 4, pp. 371–382.
  6. Yashouv A., Berner E. The growth rate of several unusually large specimens of Acanthobrama terraesanctae (Steinitz) in Lake Tiberias. Fisherman’s Bull., 1960, vol. 3, pp. 20–22.
  7. Yazdanpanah M. Reproductive biology of Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in a spring-stream system, Zanjiran, Fars province. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Biology, Shiraz University, Iran, 2005.
  1. Zabutyy A. Agriculture of Israel. Sonderdruck aus Hannoversches Jahrbuch. Band 3, Hannover, 2012, 25 p.
  2. Zohary T., Sukenik A., Berman T., Nishri A. Lake Kinneret: Ecology and Management Springer. 2014, 683 p.
  3. Zhang E. Studies on the morphology of lips and associated structures among the Labeonine fishes with a prebuccal cavity (Cyprinidae) in China. Zoological Research, 1998, vol. 3, pp. 230–236.
© 2016 Institute of Animal Biology

Search