Bìol. Tvarin, 2017, volume 19, issue 4, pp. 50–58             

http://doi.org/10.15407/animbiol19.04.050

GLUTAMATE TRANSPORT IN RAT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE NERVE TERMINALS UNDER CONDITIONS OF DEEP AND PROFOUND HYPOTHERMIA

A. Pastukhov, N. Krisanova, T. Borisova

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Institute of Biochemistry named after O. V. Palladin NAS of Ukraine,
9 Leontovycha str., Kyiv 01601, Ukraine

Hypothermia (deep and profound) is successfully used in medical practice for the prevention of consequences of ischemic stroke and in aortic arch cardiac surgery that involved reduction of cerebral circulation in order to facilitate operations. Discernment of the influence of deep/profound hypothermia (27 °C/17 °C, respectively) at the neurochemical level on normal and ischemia-associated mechanisms of glutamate transport was accomplished in the presynapse. The experiments were conducted with isolated rat cerebral hemisphere nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Synaptosomal glutamate transport characteristics were examined with radiolabelled L-[14C] glutamate.

Transporter-mediated uptake by the nerve terminals and tonic release of L-[14C]glutamate (dynamic balance of these oppositely directed processes determines the definite ambient levels of the neurotransmitter) reduced with different ranges under conditions of deep/profound hypothermia. Transporter-mediated release of L-[14C] glutamate stimulated by depolarization of the plasma membrane and by protonophore FCCP (that induced dissipation of the synaptic vesicle proton gradient) were gradually reduced from deep to profound hypothermia.

It has been established that in brain regions suffering from a reduction of blood circulation during cardiooperations, the direction of hypothermia-induced changes in the extracellular glutamate level in the nerve terminals depended on sensitivity of uptake and tonic release to hypothermia. Therefore, test parameters and clinical criteria for neuromonitoring aiming the evaluation of hypothermia-induced effects should be developed and provided in cardiac surgery medical practice. Also, the consequent decrease in the pathological transporter-mediated glutamate release determined the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia in stroke therapy.

Keywords: GLUTAMATE, GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTER REVERSAL, DEEP AND PROFOUND HYPOTHERMIA, BRAIN NERVE TERMINALS

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