Bìol. Tvarin, 2016, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp. 94–104

http://dx.doi.org/10.15407/animbiol18.02.094

CROSSBREEDING AS ELEMENT OF HIGH-PRODUCING DAIRY CATTLE

S. Y. Ruban1, O. M. Fedota2, V. O. Danshin3, L. V. Mitioglo4, V. J. Turchin5

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1M. V. Zubets Institute of animal breeding and genetics of NAAS,
1 Pogrebniaka str., v. Chubynske, Boryspil district, Kyiv region, 08321, Ukraine

2V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National Uniersity,
4 Svobody Sq. Kharkiv 61022, Ukraine

3Institute of animal science NAAS,
Kulynychi, Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region, 62404, Ukraine

4SEEF «Nyva»,
Chrystynivka, Chrystynivka district, Cherkasy region, Ukraine

5SEEF «Kutuzivka»,
Kharkiv district, Kharkiv region, Ukraine

The review article is devoted to questions of the use of crossbreeding in modern dairy cattle. The analysis of process of breed creation in Ukraine during last decades is made.

It is shown that during the last 60 years in Ukraine an experience of improvement of dairy and dual-purpose breeds of cattle was accumulated using the best world gene pool. Analysis of evolution of priorities in directions of dairy cattle breeding from 1971 to 2014 shows that not only the number of traits on which sires of dairy breeds in USA are evaluated and selected increased, but also economic reference points of selection changed radically. Characteristics of the main dairy breeds of cattle in the world are presented. The detailed characteristic of the crossbreeding program Procross is given, which assumes use of Holsteins by means of crossing them to sires of other breeds according to some schemes. Analysis of the effect of heterosis with use of systems of crossbreeding using several breeds is made.

This analysis in different generations using systems of crossbreeding with participation of several breeds showed that the most economically attractive is engagement to crossbreeding of 3 mutually contrast breeds. On the basis of previous experience of creating domestic dairy breeds as well as experience of producing commercially attractive genotypes of animals with simultaneous reducing expenses of production the guidelines on further directions of breeding work with domestic breeds are proposed.

Keywords: DAIRY CATTLE, BREED, CROSSBREEDING, HETEROSIS

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